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of grievances that the united states had against great britain in the early 19th century. many are associated with maritime disputes between great britain and the united states because this is the middle of that -- napolian wars. they are trying to establish trade, and they are impressing seamen from american vessels because they need to script crews to keep the royal navy manned because they were disputing with the british and the indians on the frontier, and british policy affected the prizes very badly, and prizes for american exports slumped during this period causing an agricultural depression making people angry. there's a whole range of those sort of grievances. basically, i think why the war was ultimately fought and why it was fought when it was because many of the disputes have been preceded in 1812 by a number of years without necessarily producing the declaration of war was that by the summer of 1811, the main grievance was something called the council, a british form of executive order, the american equivalent is the executive order issued by the president, and through the execut
, it david miliband, a former u.k. ambassador to the united states, and my former british colleague at nato. we have widespread support for this report. we are very grateful for their intellectual import and personal support, so that is what i wanted to say. at the order is for us to have a brief conversation, and then we will be happy to take whatever questions you have. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much for that. first of all, it is important to state that the atlantic council as a council does not take a point of view on anything, because it would just be too hard to get all of the members to agree, but i do think one thing we all agree on is a strong alliance and an enduring alliance, and this report points us in that direction. let me ask probably just two questions, and i will go to the audience right away, and two of the more controversial points, clearly, what you're saying on germany is tough, and it is saying it to a germany where many germans would argue, are we not doing the most important thing we could possibly do for the future of europe right now, which is aiding
was going to be the great seal of the united states. and a certain group of american leaders thought that it should be the bald eagle but another group said no, the image of the united states, the seal should show moses leading the children of israel out of bondage and into the promised land. there was this heated debate. america came this close to having moses as its national symbol. you got the folically challenged bird instead. but the authors of the moses seal were none other than thomas jefferson and benjamin franklin. so they had internalized the biblical narrative. now, for many of this generation of founding mothers and founding fathers, the fact that they were the new israel meant that they had a kinship relationship with the old israel, the jewish people. it meant since they were -- they had inherited a new promised land. they had a connection with the old promised land. and they concluded that to be good christians, to be good americans, it was their divinely ordained duty to help the old israel go back and restore their ancient kingdom to help god fulfill his promises to
a change. missouri's own harry truman now becomes president of the united states. very interesting circumstances, obviously. we are just about to wrap up the war in europe. we are i land hopping our way into japan. i mean, it looks promising and yet, there are all kinds of pot holes along the way. we still have to finish the defeat of germany. we still have to finish off japan. how we do that, when we do that, and what are the consequences of what we're doing, that's the rest of the story. truman is going to meet with stalin and churchill in potsdam, germany, after hitler is defeated. i mean, it's a new big three now with harry truman being the president now instead of roosevelt. truman's attitude is going to be very different from that of roosevelt. and some indication of that change of u.s. policy comes right away. remember i mentioned to you that even vice president harry truman had not been kept informed of the manhattan project. one of them is, there's a few things you need to know. we've been working on a bomb. it's the biggest, baddest bomb around. here in potsdam, truman ge
of the more tangled problems. historians point* two grievances the united states had against great britain. many are associated with maritime disputes because this is the middle of the napoleonic wars. and the british need to keep them were real baby manned and then the gap british and the then very badly route the period so there is a range of those grievances. the reason it was fought to this many disputes were preceded by a number of years with the summer of 1811 the main grievance was the council. our british form of the executive order. but the british proclaims sweeping blockades designed to stop the new trolls. from taking the experts and the produce in europe. they have been disputing this and it seems it could be negotiated. and the event that the british will not were a. >> it is hard to do public opinion likely due but is the most important but to declaration incongruous were not by wide margins in the house of representatives. it was very close in the senate. 19/13 if three boats had changed the senate, it could not pass the war bell. and it debated near the two weeks and it wa
front of the u.s. capitol, this is half an hour. >> ladies and gentlemen, the president of united states. >> detail, colors. present arms. [silence] >> detail, color guard, right shoulder, order. arm. >> please stand for the assessment of the colors like united states capitol police, and remain standing for our national anthem. [silence] >> detail, color guar guard. present arms. >> we will now have the national anthem by kathy williams. ♪ oh, say, can you see ♪ by the dawn's early light ♪ what so proudly we hailed ♪ at the twilight's last gleaming? ♪ ♪ whose broad stripes and bright stars ♪ ♪ thro' the perilous fight ♪ o'er the ramparts we watched ♪ were so gallantly streaming t ♪ and the rockets red glare ♪ the bombs bursting in air ♪ gave proof through the night ♪ that our flag was still there ♪ ♪ oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave ♪ ♪ o'er the land of the free ♪ and the home of the brave? >> detail, color guard. order, right shoulder, arms. >> please remain standing for the invocation. >> please join me in prayer. our gracious fathe
. as the president said, preventing a nuclear iran is in the interest of the united states. we have issued reports, and the most recent one was issued on and.ary 1 and it includes a distinguished panel of four democratic members of congress, admirals' and generals and also experts to area our last report supported the view that the best approached to this challenge is a simultaneous pursuit of a triple track policy, which is of diplomacy, tough sanctions, and a credible and invisible military threat. we also issued a white paper on each of those tracks. i want to highlight one recommendation on each of those tracks, and then i will change it over to mort zuckerman. and the military threat we believe the united states should boost the credibility of its military to air around us nuclear facilities, and we have spelled out how to do so. one element has been selling bunker busters' to israel. we do not advocate an israeli strike, but this will send a strong signal to tehran to negotiate in good faith, encourage other states that the alternative to supporting u.s. sanctions could be military conflict
playing days. >>> we're in danger. the words of chen guangcheng now begging the united states to allow his family to board hillary clinton's plane to america. >>> would you pay $1,500 for a piece of stale cake? "cnn newsroom" starts right now. we do begin this hour with breaking news. with a rare and startling look inside the mind of osama bin laden. right now the public is getting its first look at documents seized in the raid that killed the al qaeda mastermind. they are in his own words. and they capture a fading leader desperate to launch another catastrophic strike on the united states. hundreds and hundreds of pages are now appearing on the website of combatting terrorism center at west point. peter bergen is our national security expert and was given early access to this so-called treasure-trove of material. what's been your biggest take away? >> i was able to review some of the documents that are being released today in the course of reporting a book i have written on the hunt for bin laden. the take aways clearly don't have operational information that would be useful to the cia a
book, "crusade 2.0", which is about islamic phobia and its effects in the united states, studied by city life, great press. and instead of reading from the book, i thought it was just a presentation for you and for part. the four parts are going to be a visit, a palm, and e-mail and then finally a political ad. let's start with this. a couple weeks ago i went to new york city have visited park 51, an interesting islamic cultural center. and there he saw the different programs they have available. they teach error back, calligraphy. they have a course on capillary, a brazilian martial art. it was a fascinating, it occurs to me, you might not know what i'm talking about because you might not recognize part 51, the action name part 51 because you might be more familiar with the name that was used in the media to describe park 51, which is of course the ground zero mosque. it was two years ago that this islamic cultural center, not a mosque in knoxville is located at ground zero, but several blocks away became the focus of the great controversy. i don't know if you remember that two
weight in the alliance and that europe and nato is heavily subsidized by the united states. if my view, this is a rather simplified and distorted view, not only of the nato budgetary process and how the public good of security shared, funded and measured in an alliance. nonetheless, having said that over the years, there have been many colorful warnings that describe these capabilities gap and the unequal burden sharing, and the number of speeches last year, robert gates probably did more than most to revive this debate, though for me i rather like one of the latest comments which robert kaplan referred to in an article last week. he cited a u.s. air force planner who was clearly exasperated by the shortfalls in key european capabilities during the libya intervention, and he described nato as like snow white and the 27 dwarfs. so the billion dollar question is this, can the smart defense approach a pooling of resources and integration of transatlantic, especially european military procurement to ensure the alliance retains needed capabilities even at a time when the allies are making d
and ask about the united states. the united states is calling again for air strikes in syria to protect these innocent civilians. why is the president not joining them? >> well, again, to conduct military operations you've got to have allies and support in the region surrounding. syria is vournded by friends of the united states, turkey, israel, jordan, iraq. at some point in time, again going back to libya, we had bases in the mediterranean from which we could conduct air campaign close air support that establish a no-fly zone. in order to be able to do that in this context, you need to have access to bases. one of these countries is going to have to pony up the bases. again, that takes the kind of coordination and building of a consensus to get where we need to go where decisive action becomes more possible. >> you hear these leaders saying there is no plan b when we talk about syria. thank you. let me get to this here. >> do we have a verdict? >> it doesn't seem like we have a verdict. there's been a swirl behind the scenes, if you will. there was a earlier note that came right befor
a broad. it's a move that could end a diplomatic crisis with the united states. and final campaign rallies are underway in france ahead of sunday's presidential elections. opinion polls show that nicolas sarkozy and francois hollande as close as they've ever been. now i've been joined in the studio by rachel, bringing us the business news. one of the top stories you're looking at, rachel, is facebook and that initial public offering, i.p.o., what he wants the latest thinking on that? >> so this book is 8 years old, 900 million users worldwide, and thee decided now is the time to float on the markets. everybody's talking about t. the big question is will people want to invest in it? one of the things is the founder, mark zuckerberg. he's almost 60% control of boasting rights. as recently as last month, he agreed to buy the photo sharing site for a pillion dollars, and told the board about it afterwards. so earlier, i spoke to stewart mills and asked how he thinks mr. zuckerberg will answer to shareholders. >> when the board and shareholders start coming in and saying, look, we own this comp
that refused to fight in the united states for example eugene debs rose to give a tour against american participation in the war and was sent to prison and was still in prison in november 1920 when he received nearly a million votes for president on the socialist ticket. another america the pioneer social worker jane addams also was a strong opponent of the war for more than 500 americans were jailed as conscientious objectors including these two at fort riley arkansas. in germany the great radical spoke out against the war and britain the meeting philosopher was most elegant of the war a hero for me writing this book. i will review one thing if you want describing the feeling he rode and i appreciate him because of this intellectual bravery and acknowledging the conflict in his feelings which is something that often most of us don't do when we take a political stand. they describe themselves as being tortured by patriotism as ardently as any retired colonel. love of them was the strongest the motion i possessed and in a period setting aside such a moment making it difficult as truth, t
between the united states and japan. today, we welcome you in that spirit. i have worked to strengthen the ties between our two nations. when prime minister noda and i met, we talk about strengthening. i want to thank you for the personal commitment you have brought to this endeavor. you have called the united states is japan's greatest asset. through our determination and humility we have seen this through. during our discussions today, the prime minister compared his leadership style to that of a point guard in basketball. he may not be flashy, but he stays focused and gets the job done. that has helped make this visit a milestone. am proud to announce we have agreed to a new joint vision to help shape the asian-pacific for decades to come. this is part of a broader effort i discussed in which the united states is, once again, beating in the asian-pacific region. this will remain the foundation of the security and foundations -- security and prosperity of our two nations and a cornerstone of regional peace and security. we reviewed the agreement that we reached last week to realign a
's a friend and ally of the united states. we are not calling for australian membership. we are calling for a partnership to develop. australia trains more energetically with germany and britain and france. you already trained significantly with the united states. let's say there is another humanitarian disaster the way there was in december of 2004 what happened on december 26th, australia, united states and japan and india deployed together to help the people of sri lanka and southern india because we had trained together in the air and sea. we want that type of cooperation. you have been a stalwart ally in afghanistan but you had to do it on the run not having worked very much with the european allies. it is inculcating patterns of cooperation and military training and confers no obligation on the part of parter countries. in essence it is the best of both worlds for the asia-pacific allies from my perspective. >> also hearing the most frequent complaint from australian officials is you are more than happy to use soldiers and resources in battle but we are not involved in the plannin
the challenges with less risk of damage to the economies of the rest of the world and the united states. >> if breeze is forced out of the euro before they get to this wonderful package of slower austerity and more growth? is forced out of the euro? >> europe as a whole has a very strong incentive in doing what it's gone to take to make monetary union work. that's what the reforms over the last six months have tried to do. they tried to put in place a set of mechanisms for discipline in fiscal policy and cooperating on fiscal policy, for sharing as of resources, for managing the financial system that need to make monetary union work. i think their decisions, confronted with this fear of broad erosion in your experiment, is to redouble their commitment to try to make this thing work. if we believe they have the ability to do that. we hope they manage this process. very difficult set of intelligence. >> to learn anything from their experience or is it totally different? >> the talent is are different, but if you listen to where we started this conversation, what we're trying to do is make
's a very good example of where germany could lead in the future and help the united states and the united kingdom to rebuild our badly weak bridges to the russian leadership as president putin takes power and we must do this because russia's just too important and russia is both in some ways an adversary, not in military terms, but politically, but in some ways it's a friend and partner of the united states. we want to accentuate the friendship and partnership. i think chanceler merkel is perfectly placed to be that bridge for the u.s. to russia. >> terry murphy. good day, sir. quick comment and a two-part question. comment number one is you kind of overlooked the trans-atlantic business dialogue which has been going on for 20 years quite prominently. but secondly on the question of germany, last week i think it was captain harry whales, junior officer of the british army, got an award from the beneficiary council for his efforts to support the wounded warriors of britain and we know that the wounded warriors here are supported by the populous. there was a piece in the paper that wounded
. >>> this is "gps, the global public square." welcome to all of you in the united states and around the world. i'm fareed zakaria. we'll begin today's show in europe. voters in france and greece made their anti-austerity feelings known last weekend and stock markets plunged. we'll have a panel on the big picture and what it means for politics in the west. >>> then robert zoelik will step down as head of the world bank. his exit interview here on "gps." >>> next, we go to israel which has anointed a king. what in the world does it mean? >>> and, finally, the curious case of the guy who has come to be known as american french fry brother. a cultural lost in translation all the way from china. you won't want to miss it. >>> first, here's my take. everyone is looking at europe these days as economic and political protests mount across the continent. the downward spiral in europe has produced a great debate over the virtues of austerity. the idea that government with large budget deficits must reduce these deficits mainly by cutting spending. if they don't get their budgets in order, they won't be ab
in the southwest united states, where cities that were, if you take certain cities on the edge of california, on their edge of los angeles, for example, that were -- had a conventional post war democratic and have now become 90 to 95% hispanic, this is a democratic that wasn't even in the 1960 u.s. census. that's actually a big transformation in a fairly short space of time. and it has consequences. now, when you put the why, i would do you care, that's the benign view. people think -- we were talking about broadway just we went on air. that's like the production of holiday pel low doll -- "hello dolly" and then he ran out of brassy, middle-aged blonds, and then he changed it to an all-black cast, and people think that's what happened if you have a muslim netherlands or muslim britain, there will be fewer pubs, the pubs will have to close, but essentially it will basically still be the same, and i don't think that's -- no serious person would argue that. >> host: on the cover of the new paperback version of "america alone" there's a little sticker, soon to be banned in canada. >> guest: that
to the united states so he can pursue his studies. >> clinton also said she was, quote, encouraged by this two-sentence statement from china's foreign ministry. quote, if he wishes to study overseas as a chinese citizen, he can, like any other chinese citizens, process relevant procedures with relevant departments through normal channels in accordance to the law. several chinese newspapers launched an insult on chen and the u.s. describing the dissident as a pawn of the united states. china's official news agency did not follow suit suggesting there might be disagreement in china over how to save face in this crisis with both clinton and geithner on chinese soil. the chinese government, they say, has said they will accept his applications for appropriate travel documents and they would give his visa and family v. request priority. it follows a tense 48-hours where he in a beijing hospital surrounded by security answered a phone call from high man rights activist as they were meeting with republican members of congress. >> translator: i want to meet with the secretary, clinton. i hope i can get
attack in the united states in view of taking oath not to harm it when he was awarded his american citizenship. he responded that he lied when he took the oath. that shahzad's lie amount to betrayal and does not fall under permissible lying if the enemy during times of war. please request that pakistani taliban brothers to address this matter. also draw their attention to the fact that brother faisal shahzad appeared in photograph alongside commander f masoud. leader of attp. when he acquires american citizenship this requires taking an oath to not to harm america if he is unaware of this matter he should be informed of it. we must act swiftly to remove the suspicion that he engaged in the betrayal. the times square attempted attack was not only one that had the al qaeda no hand in pakistan. it is clear from the letters that the group's indiscriminate attacks, pakistani taliban's indiscrimenant attacks against muslims were of major concern to al qaeda. this led them to write a letter to respected brother massoud, the leader of the ttp. the authors explicitly stated that the satisfa
spending, and i think these worries are shared by many in the united states as well. let's get started. >>> it's been a big week in europe, and i have some distinguished experts to make sense of it all. peter mandleson is in london. he has not only held top cabinet positions under the labor governments of tony blair and gordon brown. he has also served as a member of the european commission. joseph joffrey joins us from hamburg. he is the editor of "the german weekly." elaine also joins us. she happens to be in new york, but she is the paris correspondent for the "new york times", a beat she has covered for more than a decade. and david frum rounds things out from d.c. he is a regular on the show and a former speechwriter for george w. bush. welcome all. elaine, let me start with you. you know francois hollande. you have interviewed him. is he a radical? is he a moderate? how does he strike you? >> francois hollande is mr. normal. he got elected president of france because he promised to be a normal candidate and a normal president. when i was traveling with him in 2007, he was so norm
of the united states, mitt romney [applause] >> thank you so very much. good thank you for the very powerful and moving and emotional introduction. thank you for your friendship. . pastor, thank you. faculty and staff and distinguished guests, parents and friends, and graduating seniors from liberty, for the graduates, this marks a clear ending and a clear beginning. did the task set before you four years ago is completed in full. to the class of 2012, well done and congratulations. i am told some of you may have taken longer than four years to complete your studies. good one of them said he completed its in only two terms, clinton costs and bush's. i share this with kathy. the romney campaign comes to a sudden stop when we spot a chick-fil-a. it is comfort food during the campaign season. and we needed a lot of comfort. congratulations on your honor today. [applause] of course, there are some people here who are even more pleased than the graduates. that would be their parents. their years of prayers and devotions and investment have added up to this joyful achievement. -- devotion and inve
not understand why some people think that russia is the no. 1 adversary of the united states, we need russia and afghanistan. russia is helping us to resupply our forces in afghanistan. we have an interest in promoting counter-terrorism cooperation in russia. i was thinking that iran, right now the no. 1 national security issue of the united states is the iranian nuclear future. if you look at that constructs, russia is the most important country at the table for the united states. china will not be helpful. the european powers, of course, have a limited influence. if there is going to be an endgame on iran, where we convince them not to start -- not to stop short, they will have a lot to do with that solution. there will be a very close u.s.- russian interplay and cooperation on iran. meaning that the nato russian relationship is critically important. the promise of 10 years ago when we created the summit in italy, that promise has not been fulfilled. i would think a major order of business for the u.s. and germany is to bring back a good working relationship with the russian government. ve
as appropriate leaders of the united states. >> you don't think there was anything interesting in talking about the constitution saying the age of the president and the birth place of the president and the citizenship of of the president, the long run-up to something about business which the romney campaign consistently says is their focus. margaret hoover come on. >> you said will cain and didn't get the answer you like. >> it's not the answer i like. i think you're not being honest with me. >> excuse me, when i'm accused of being dishonest you can be assured i will respond. >> good, you go. >> i think this is the unfortunate happenstance of including donald trump in your news coverage. we expand the narrative to assume that everything mitt romney says when he's speaking on the value of business experience that -- >> run that clip again. >> no, you can play it as soon as i'm done but let me finish this. >> i'm not saying every little thing. i'm saying this particular clip where he talks about changing the constitution because the age, the birth place, the citizenship and then goes on and talks
here and getting objective accounts of what the united states government and other governments are doing. on september 10, 2001, i had lunch with mr. bremer. he chaired the congressional commission on terrorism on which i served. it was one of three task forces to predict a major terror attack on u.s. soil. at that lunch, we lamented that nobody was taking our report seriously. the next day, the world changed. in my capacity as a senior democrat, i was headed to the u.s. capitol at 9:00 a.m. when an urgent call turned me around. most think the capitol was the intended target of the fourth plane. congress shut down. a terrible move, i thought. 250 members mingled on the capitol lawn. i tried to reach my youngest child. the cell towers were done. i do not know where john brennan was. i do know that our lives can to get a after that. when he served as deferred director -- the first director of the nctc, when he moved into the white house's deputy national security adviser for homeland security and counter- terrorism and assistant to the president, and when i succeeded lee hamilton
. and this was their ambassador in spain after being told to get out. britain and the united states were among others ordering ambassador's home. >> this is part of our tightening of pressure. >> their top diplomat and two others said the embassy at london have been given seven days to leave the -- to leave britain. is designed to send a strong signal to president assad that he must now get behind kofi annan's peace plan. >> annan urged him to start dialogue. assad denied having anything to do with the deaths. it did not look like a meeting of the minds. >> we are at a tipping point. the syrian people did not want their future to be one of bloodshed and division. yet the killings continue. the abuses are still with us today. >> if the massacre is a tipping point, it could be to greater violence. syria opposed the regime has always calculated their survival depends on overwhelming force, not on dialogue. >> the death toll from the latest earthquake to hit northern italy has risen to 16. what more can you tell us? >> the epicenter was close to where a similar quake struck nine days earlier. a factory and wareho
of that changed with his mother's assassinationment now he is in the united states to attend the peabody awards where a documenteer called bhutto is being honored. a visit to new york and his father's visit to chicago for the g8 comes at a difficult time in pakistani u.s. relations there is tension over a 33 year sentence given to a doctor without allegedly helped the cia identify some of bin laden's location. >> the united states does not believe there is any basis for holding dr. afridi. we regret both fact that he was con contribute-- convicted and the severity of his sentence. his help, after all, was instrumental in taking down one of the world's most notorious murderers, that was clearly in pakistan's interests as well as ours and the rest of the world. this action by dr. afridi to help bring about the end of the reign of terror designed and executed by bin laden was not in any way a betrayal of pakistan. and we have made that vi well-known and we will continue to press it with the government of pakistan. >> rose: there are also tensions over the deaths of 24 pakistani soldiers during a n
austerity in the united states down the road. >> they can't even decide on $6 billion for student loan subsidies. $6 billion for student loan subsidy lows washington if to a complete uproar and just the shear size of all of the problems to come, it's a little scary. >> i'm with you on this. ken, you made the point when you talked about debt and christine said do you mean consumer debt or government debt and you said consumer debt. this may be the big problem that needs to be solved. it also may be a problem that we can start taking into our own hands between government doesn't help us solve it. we'll talk about that when we come back. this is truly a nation of haves and have knots. and we'll look at the growing debt divide. how much debt is good for you and the economy? is debt the great in-equalizer in this country? and of course later on, i know you want to talk about facebook. it prepares to go public. we'll tell you what you need to know and if you can and should buy stock in facebook. so, by combining your auto and renters insurance, we can save you $600. $600? wow, you're like a
just dropped out of the race newt gingrich. we want to welcome our viewers in the united states and around the world. i'm wolf blitzer. you're in "the situation room." >>> formally this week, satellites would have been dominated by the race for the white house and the increasingly heating battle between the obama and romney campaigns. but president obama rewrote the script, catching the world by surprise with an unexpected trip to afghanistan where he marked the one-year anniversary of the death of the world's most wanted terrorist. >> one year ago from bases here in afghanistan our troops launched the operation that killed osama bin laden. the goal that i set to defeat al qaeda and denied a chance to rebuild is now within our reach. >> the trip wasn't without controversy, some critics accusing the president of playing politics with the anniversary of bin laden's death, questioning whether romney's campaign would have done the same thing. romney this week picked up an important endorsement, the endorsement of the formal rival michele bachmann. jim acosta, romney still has an eno
in the united states. >>> this is "gps, the global public square." welcome to all of you in the united states and around the world. i'm fareed zakaria. we have a very important show today dealing with the biggest problems facing the world. as europe is crumbling, the man who is seen as its potential savior is italy's new prime minister, mario monti, super mario. i have an exclusive interview with him. monti has been trying to reform italy, reassure markets, and keep the germans happy. if he succeeds, he charts a path out of the crisis for other countries. >>> then iran. it's in dire economic straits for a very different reason. we have another exclusive. this one with iran's finance minister about just how crippling u.s.-led sanctions have been for his nation. >>> next up, a conversation with paul krugman. the biggest question in the world today is whether to spend or whether to cut. krugman is the leading voice saying stimulate. i'll ask him to defend his views. >>> all that plus superstitions in the race for space. >>> but, first, here's my take. everyone is worried that greece might defaul
. even though he was president of the united states, it's really his service as the commanding general of the union army that made his famous. it's a very unusual statue. it faces down the mall from the lincoln memorial. and it's right at the base of the capitol. it's actually several statues together. and it was constructed over time. it was constructed and designed by a man named henry schraidy, who was not a professional artists. he was a wealthy man who went into art and really gave his life to make this statue, which took decades to do. and it was built in stages. first, the marble base was erected in 1910 with bronze lions. then in 1912, the depiction of the artillery in the civil war was added. and in 1916, the depiction of the cavalry is added. and in 1920, this enormous statue of general grant, the statue itself is 17 feet tall. it's on a, i think a 20-foot pedestal. the statue weighs something like 10,000 pounds. it's a bronze horse with a figure of general grant, who's sort of slumped down. people said that the horse looks more alert than general grant does. the horse's ears
the conflict between the united states and the soviet union. we're going to emerge from world war ii as the two great global super-powers. this is a struggle between the u.s. and ussr for global extreme si. it is a cold war, simply because we, the united states, do not come into direct military conflict with the soviet union. we're going to be battling them all around the world for global supremacy. but never directly. this is the most important foreign policy issue of the last half of 20th century, the cold war. it encompasses the fall of china, communism, korea, vietnam, all kinds of topics we'll talk about over the next couple of weeks. so it not only has a foreign component, we're also going to talk today about what's going on, the effects of the cold war here at home. and we'll talk about presidential elections, about a domestic issue, known as the red scare, sort of the second red scare. and how the united states is sort of going to be gripped with suspicions and paranoias about all things communist. a lot of ground to cover today in terms of foreign policy and domestic policy. all right.
. [inaudible] >> elaborate on the impact of the united states entry into the war. >> to elaborate on the impact of the united states entry to the war. the united states was part of the war effort from the beginning because we were selling large amounts of armaments to britain and france, not to germany and much of those sales on credit. because they were on credit, one impact of the war was to make the united states enormously wealthy because everybody ended up owing us money at the end of the war. militarily the u.s. entered the war in april of 1917, about a year and six months before the end. there was an enormous psychological boost for the our eyes when they u.s. entered. there wasn't much direct military effect immediately except on the oceans because of the u.s. had a surprisingly small standing army at that time. we did have quite a large navy which joined the british in hunting down german submarines. large numbers of american troops didn't begin arriving in france until may or june of 1918 and then they did have a considerable impact because the germans had launched a sort of desperate
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